Cancer Keys: Myeloma and C.R.A.B

30th September 2021

C.R.A.B is the acronym designed to simplify the most typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma. Clinicians should consider the following indicators in a potential myelomadiagnosis:

C: Calcium – hypercalcaemia

Symptoms include: excessive thirst, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite, and confusion.

R: Renal – any form of renal dysfunction

A: Anaemia (of unknown cause)

Symptoms include: exhaustion, weakness, mental fatigue, and forgetfulness.

B: Bone – unexplained and persistent bone pain (often back pain)

Symptoms include: pain, breaks/fractures, and spinal problems.

Helpful hint:

NICE NG12 guidelines advise that a very urgent protein electrophoresis and Bence-Jones protein urine test (within 48 hours) to assess for myeloma in people aged 60 and over with hypercalcaemia or leukopenia and a presentation that is consistent with possible myeloma.

Cancer Keys are brought to you by GatewayC.

Find out more: 

  • Download this Cancer Key here
  • Access GatewayC’s ‘Myeloma – Early Diagnosis’ course here
  • Read GatewayC’s Cancer Key: Persistent bone pain and myeloma here

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